История США
Материалы к курсу


Это старая версия сайта, она не обновляется. Новый сайт "История США"
расположен по адресу USHISTORY.RU

Current R., Williams T. H., Freidel F., Brinkley A. American History: a survey. 7th edition; New York, 1987.





Chapter 1. Two Worlds Collide

The Civilizations of America

America Before Columbus

Encounters with Europe

Europe Looks Westward

Commerce and Nationalism

Christopher Columbus

The  Conquistadores

The Spanish Empire

The Arrival of the English

The Commercial Incentive

The Religious Incentive

The English in Ireland

French and Dutch Rivals

The First English Settlements

Chapter 2 . The English "Transplantations"

The Early Chesapeake

The Founding of Jamestown



Maryland and the Calverts

Turbulent Virginia

Bacon's Rebellion

The Growth of New England

Plymouth Plantation

The Massachusetts Bay Experiment

Exodus from the Bay Colony

Settlers and Natives

The Restoration Colonies

The English Civil War

The Carolinas

New Netherland and New York

The Quaker Colonies

The Founding of Georgia

The Development of Empire

The Navigation Acts

The Dominion of New England

The "Glorious Revolution"

Chapter 3. Life in Provincial America

The Colonial Population

The Early Population

Birth and Death

Women and Families

The Beginnings of Slavery

New Immigration

The Colonial Economy

The Southern Economy

The Northern Economy

The Rise of Commerce

Patterns of Society

The Plantation

The Puritan Community

The Witchcraft Phenomenon


The Colonial Mind

The Pattern of Religions

The Decline of Piety

The Great Awakening

Language and Letters


The Allure of Science

Concepts of Law and Politics

Chapter 4. The Empire Under Strain

A Loosening of Ties

A Tradition of Neglect

Intercolonial Disunity

The Struggle for the Continent

New France and the Iroquois Nation

Angle-French Conflicts

The Great War for the Empire

The New Imperialism

Burdens of Empire

The Role of George III

The Colonial Response

Stirrings of Revolt

The Stamp Act Crisis

The Townshend Program

The Boston Massacre

The Philosophy of Revolt

The Tea Excitement

Cooperation and War

New Sources of Authority

Lexington and Concord


Chapter 5 . The American Revolution

The States United

Defining American War Aims

The Decision for Independence

Mobilizing for War

The War for Independence

The First Phase: New England

The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region

Securing Aid from Abroad

The Final Phase: The South

Winning the Peace

War and Society

Loyalists and Minorities

Women's Rights and Women's Roles'

The War Economy

The Creation of State Governments

The Assumptions of Republicanism

The First State Constitutions

Revising State Governments

Opportunity, Toleration, and Slavery

The Search for a National Government

The Confederation

Diplomatic Failures

The Needs of the West

Debts, Taxes, and Daniel Shays

Chapter 6. The Constitution and the New Republic

Toward a New Government

Advocates of Centralization

A Divided Convention

Differences Compromised

The Constitution of 1787

Adoption and Adaptation

Federalists and Antifederalists

Completing the Structure

Federalists and Republicans

Hamilton and the Federalists

Enacting the Federalist Program

The Republican Opposition

Asserting National Sovereignty

Securing the Frontier

Maintaining Neutrality

Jay's Treaty

The Downfall of the Federalists

The Election of 1796

The Quasi War with France

Repression and Protest

The "Revolution" of 1800

Chapter 7. The Jeffersonian Era

The Rising Glory of America

Education and Professionalism

Cultural Nationalism

Religion and Revivalism

Stirrings of Industrialism

The Industrial Revolution in England

Technology in America

Trade and Transportation

Country and City

Jefferson the President

The Federal City

President and Party Leader

Dollars and Ships

Conflict with the Courts

Doubling the National Domain

Jefferson and Napoleon

The Louisiana Purchase

Exploring the West

The Burr Conspiracy

Chapter 8. Free Seas and Fresh Lands

Causes of Conflict

Neutral Rights


"Peaceable Coercion"

The "Indian Problem" and the British

Tecumseh and the Prophet

The Lure of Florida

The War Hawks

The War of 1812

The Course of Battle

The Revolt of New England

The Peace Settlement

Free Seas Again

Postwar Expansion

Banking and Currency

Protecting Industry


The Great Migration

The Far West

The "Era of Good Feelings"

John Quincy Adams and Florida

The Panic of 1819


Chapter 9. A Resurgence of Nationalism

America's Economic Revolution

The Population, 1820 - 1840

The Canal Age

The Early Railroads

The Expansion of Business

The Rise of the Factory

Men and Women at Work

Sectionalism and Nationalism

The Missouri Compromise

Marshall and the Court

The Latin American Revolution

The Monroe Doctrine

The Revival of Opposition

The "Corrupt Bargain"

The Second President Adams

Jackson Triumphant

Chapter 10. Democracy in America

The Advent of Mass Politics

President of the Common Man

The Expanding Electorate

The Legitimation of Party

"Our Federal Union"

Calhoun and Nullification

The Rise of Van Buren

The Webster-Hayne Debate

The Nullification Crisis

Jackson and States' Rights

The Removal of the Indians

Jackson and the Bank War

Biddle's Institution

The "Monster" Destroyed

The Taney Court

The Emergence of the Second Party System

Party Philosophies

Party Constituencies

Party Leadership

The Crowded Campaign of 1836

Post-Jacksonian Politics

Economic Dilemmas

The Van Buren Program

The Log Cabin Campaign

The Frustration of the Whigs

Whig Diplomacy

Chapter 11. The North and the South: Diverging Societies

The Developing North

Northeastern Industry

Transportation and Communications

Cities and Immigrants

The Rise of Nativism

Labor in the Northeast

Wealth and Mobility

Women and the "Cult a/Domesticity"

Northeastern Agriculture

The Old Northwest

The Expanding South

The Rise of King Cotton

Southern Trade and Industry

Plantation Society

The Southern Lady

The Plain Folk

The "Peculiar Institution"

Varieties of Slavery

The Continuing Slave Trade

Slave Resistance

Slave Religion and the Black Family

Chapter 12. An Age of Reforms

Culture and Liberation

A Literary Flowering

The Transcendentalists

Visions of Utopia

Redefining Sexual Roles

The Mormons

Remaking Society

Revivalism, Morality, and Order

Education and Rehabilitation

The Rise of Feminism

The Crusade Against Slavery

Early Opposition to Slavery

Garrison and Abolitionism

Black Abolitionists


Abolitionism Divided

Chapter 13. The Impending Crisis

Expansion and War

Manifest Destiny

The Question of Texas

The Question of Oregon

Polk and Expansion

The Southwest and California

The Mexican War

A New Sectional Crisis

The Sectional Debate

Taylor and the Territories

The Compromise of 1850

The Crises of the 1850s

The Uneasy Truce

"Young America"

The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy

"Bleeding Kansas"

The Free-Soil Ideology

The Proslavery Argument

Buchanan and Depression

The  Dred Scott Decision

Deadlock over Kansas

The Emergence of Lincoln

John Brown's Raid

The Election of Lincoln


Chapter 14. The War of the Rebellion

The Secession Crisis

The Withdrawal of the South

The Failure of Compromise

The Question  Inevitability

The Opposing Sides

The Mobilization of the North

Economic Measures

Raising the Union Armies

Political Challenges

The Politics of  Emancipation

The War and Society

The Mobilization of the South

The Confederate Government

Money and Manpower

States' Rights Versus Centralisation

Social Effects of the War

Strategy and Diplomacy

The Commanders—North and South

The Role of Sea Power

Europe and the Disunited States

Campaigns and Battles

The Opening Clashes, 1861

The Western Theater

The Virginia Front, 1862

Year of Decision, 1863

The Last Stage, 1864-1865

Chapter 15. Reconstructing the Nation

The Problems of Peacemaking

The Aftermath of War

Issues of Reconstruction

Lincoln's Plan

The Death of Lincoln

Johnson and "Restoration"

Radical Reconstruction

The Response to the Black Codes

The Fourteenth Amendment

The Congressional Plan

The Impeachment of the President

The South in Reconstruction

The Reconstruction Governments


Land Ownership

Incomes and Credit

The Black Family in Freedom

The Grant Administration

The Soldier President

Diplomatic Successes

The Defection of the Liberals

The Grant Scandals

The Greenback Question

The Abandomnent of Reconstruction

The Southern States "Redeemed"

The Compromise of 1877

The Tragedy of Reconstruction


Chapter 16. The New South and the Last West

The South in Transition

The "Redeemers''

Whites and the New South

Blacks and the New South

The Birth of Jim Crow

The Origins of Black Protest

The Conquest of the Far West

Delayed Settlement

The Arrival of the Miners

The Cattle Kingdom

The Romance of the West

The Dispersal of the Tribes

The Plains Indians

White Policies Toward the Tribes

The Warriors' Last Stand

The Rise and Decline of the Western Farmer

Farming on the Plains

Changes in Agriculture

The Farmers' Grievances

The Agrarian Malaise

Chapter 17. Industrial Supremacy

Sources of Industrial Growth

Industrial Technology

The Science of Production

Railroad Expansion

The Corporation

Capitalism and Its Critics

The "Self-Made Men"

Survival of the Fittest

Gospel of Wealth

Alternative Visions

The Problems of Monopoly

The Ordeal of the Worker

The Immigrant Work Force

Wages and Working Conditions

Women and Children at Work

Emerging Unionization

The Knights of Labor


The Homestead Strike

The Pullman Strike

Sources of Labor Weakness

Chapter 18. The Age of the City

The New Urban Growth

The City's Lure

The Ethnic City

Assimilation and Exclusion

The Urban Landscape

Strains of Urban Life

The Machine and the Boss

Society and Culture in Urbanizing America

The Rise of Mass Consumption

Uses of Leisure

Mass Communications

Intellectual Life

The Arts in Urban America

Toward Universal Schooling

Education for Women

Chapter 19. From Stalemate to Crisis

The Politics of Equilibrium

The Party System

Presidents and Patronage

The Return of the Democrats

Emerging Issues

The Agrarian Revolt

The Grangers

The Alliances

The Populist Constituency

The Populist Ideology

The Crisis of the 1890s

The Panic of 1893

The Silver Question

"A Cross of Gold"

The Conservative Victory

McKinley and Prosperity

Chapter 20. The Imperial Republic

Stirrings of Imperialism

The New Manifest Destiny

Hemispheric Hegemony

Hawaii and Samoa

War with Spain

Controversy over Cuba

"A Splendid Little War"

Decision for Imperialism

The Republic as Empire

Governing the Colonies

The Philippine War

The Open Door

A Modern Military System

Chapter 21. The Rise of Progressivism

The Progressive Impulse

The Muckrakers

The Social Gospel

The Settlement House Movement

The Allure of Expertise

The Professions

Women and the Professions

The Clubwomen

The Assault on the Parties

Early Attacks

Municipal Reform

Statehouse Progressivism

The Laboratory of La Follette

Parties and Interest Groups

Reform by Machine

Crusades for Order and Reform

The Temperance Crusade

Immigration Restriction

Suffrage for Women

The Dream of Socialism

Decentralization and Regulation

Chapter 22. The Battle for National Reform

Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Presidency

The Accidental President

Managing the Trusts

Government and Labor

The Square Deal


The Panic of 1907

The Roosevelt Retirement

The Troubled Succession

Congress and the Tariff

The Pinchot-Ballinger Affair

The Return of Roosevelt

Spreading Insurgency

TR Versus Taft

Woodrow Wilson and the New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson

The Election of 1912

The Scholar as President

Tariffs and Taxes

Banking Reform

The Problem of the Trusts

Retreat and Advance

The "Big Stick": America and the World, 1901-1917

Sea Power and Civilization

Challenges in Asia

The Iron-Fisted Neighbor

The Panama Canal

Taft and "Dollar Diplomacy"

Diplomacy and Morality

Mission in Mexico

Chapter 23. America and the Great War

The Road to War

A False Neutrality

Preparedness Versus Pacifism

A War for Democracy

"War Without Stint"

The Military Struggle

Financing the War

The War Boards

Government, Industry, and Labor

The Results of Organisation

The Search for Social Unity

Selling the War

Legal Repression

Popular Repression

The German-Americans

The Search for a New World Order

The Fourteen Points

Early Obstacles

The Paris Peace Conference

The Ratification Battle

Wilson's Ordeal

A Society in Turmoil

The Troubled Economy

Labor Unrest

The Red Scare

Racial Unrest

Retreat from Idealism


Chapter 24. The New Era

The New Economy

Economic Performance

Economic Organisation

Labor's Dilemma

The Plight of the Farmer

The New Culture


National Communications

Modem Religion

The New Woman

Education and Youth

The Decline of the "Self-Made Man"

The Disenchanted

A Refuge in Art

Other Visions

A Conflict of Cultures


Nativism and the Klan

Religious Fundamentalism

The Democrats'Ordeal

Republican Government

Warren G. Harding

The Harding Scandals

Calvin Coolidge

Government and Business

Chapter 25. The Great Depression

The Coming of the Depression

The Great Crash

Causes of the Depression

Progress of the Depression

The American People in Hard Times

Unemployment and Relief

Black Americans and the Depression

Hispanics and Indians

Women in the Work Force

Depression Families

Social Values

Depression Culture

The Allure of the Left

The Ordeal of Herbert Hoover

The Hoover Program

A Change of Direction

Agrarian Unrest

The Bonus March

The Election of 1932

The Interregnum

Chapter 26. The New Deal

Launching the New Deal

Restoring Confidence

Agricultural Adjustment

Industrial Recovery

Regional Planning

Financial Reforms

The Growth  of Federal Relief

The New Deal in Transition

Attacks from Right and Left

Popular Protest

The Second New Deal

Labor Militancy

Organizing Battles

Social Security

New Directions in Relief

The 1936 "Referendum"

The New Deal in Disarray

The Court Fight and the "Purge"

Retrenchment and Recession

The New Deal: Limits and Legacies

The Idea of the "Broker State"

Black America and the New Deal

Women and the New Deal

The New Deal and the Economy

The New Deal and American Politics

Chapter 27. The Global Crisis, 1921-1945

The Diplomacy of the New Era

Replacing the League

Debts and Diplomacy

Hoover and the World Crisis

Isolationism and Internationalism

Depression Diplomacy

America and the Soviet Union

The Good Neighbor Policy

The Rise of Isolationism

Growing Dangers

The Failure of Munich

Neutrality Tested

The Third-Term Campaign

Neutrality Abandoned

The Road to Pearl Harbor

War on Two Fronts

Containing the Japanese

Holding Off the Germans

America and the Holocaust

The American People in Wartime

The War Economy

Labor and the War

Stabilizing the Boom

Mobilising Production

Blacks and the War

"Rosie the Riveter"

The Internment of the Japanese-Americans

The Retreat from Reform

The Defeat of the Axis

The Liberation of France

The Pacific Offensive

Toward Final Victory

The Manhattan Project

Atomic Warfare


Chapter 28. America and the Cold War

Origins of the Cold War

A Legacy of Mistrust

Two Visions of the World

Wartime Diplomacy


The Collapse of the Peace

The Failure of Potsdam

A Dilemma in Asia

The Containment Doctrine

The Marshall Plan

Mobilization at Home

The Road to NATO

The Enduring Crisis

America After the War

The Problems of Reconversion

The Fair Deal Rejected

The Election of 1948

The Fair Deal Revived

The Korean War

The Divided Peninsula

From Invasion to Stalemate

Limited Mobilization

The Crusade Against Subversion

HUAC and Alger Hiss

The Federal Loyalty Program

McCarthy ism

The Republican Revival

Chapter 29. The Affluent Society

The Economic "Miracle"

Economic Growth

The New Economics

Capital and Labor

A People of Plenty

The Consumer Culture

The Suburban Nation

The Suburban Family

The Birth of Television

Science and Space

Organised Society and Its Detractors

The Other America

The Rise of the Civil-Rights Movement

The  Brown Decision and "Massive Resistance"

The Expanding Movement

Eisenhower Republicanism

A Business Government

The Survival of Social Welfare

The Decline of McCarthyism

Eisenhower, Dulles, and the Cold War

Dulles and "Massive Retaliation"

Challenges in Asia

Crises in the Middle East

Latin America and "Yankee Imperialism"

Europe and the Soviet Union

Khrushchev and Berlin

Chapter 30. The Ordeal of Liberalism

Expanding the Liberal State

John Kennedy

Lyndon Johnson

The Assault on Poverty

Cities and Schools

Legacies of the Great Society

The Battle for Racial Equality

Expanding Protests

A National Commitment

The Battle for Voting Rights

The Changing Movement

Urban Violence

Black Power

From "Flexible Response" to Vietnam

Diversifying Foreign Policy

Fiasco in Cuba

Confrontations with the Soviet Union

Johnson and the World

Guns and Advisers

From Aid to Intervention

The Quagmire

The War at Home

The Traumas of 1968

The Tet Offensive

The Political Challenge

The King Assassination

The Kennedy Assassination and Chicago

The Conservative Response

Chapter 31. The Crisis of Authority

The Turbulent Society

The New Left

The Counterculture

Indian Militancy

Hispanic Americans

The New Feminism

Early Stirrings

The Rebirth

Expanding Achievements

The Abortion Controversy

Nixon, Kissinger, and the War



"Peace with Honor"

Defeat in Indochina

Nixon, Kissinger, and the World

The China Initiative

The Birth of Detente

The Problems of Multipolarity

Politics and Economics Under Nixon

Domestic Initiatives

From the Warren Court to the Nixon Court

The Election of 1972

The Troubled Economy

The Nixon Response

The Watergate Crisis

The White House Autocracy

The Scandals

The Fall of Richard Nixon

Chapter 32. Confusion and Conservatism

Politics and Diplomacy After Watergate

The Ford Custodianship

Seeking International Stability

The Election of 1976

The Trials of Jimmy Carter

Energy and the Economy

Human Rights and National Interests

Great-Power Diplomacy

The Year of the Hostages

The Campaign of 1980

The "Reagan Revolution"

Ronald Reagan

The Contours of Reaganism

Supply-Side Economics

The Fiscal Crisis

Reagan and the World

The Election of 1984

Modem Times

The New Demography

The Sunbelt and the Cities

Nonwhites in the Postliberal Era

The New Religion and the New Right

The Changing Left

Turning Inward



"Facts" Versus Interpretations
The Origins of Slavery
The American Revolution
The Background of the Constitution
Jacksonian Democracy
The Nature of Plantation Slavery
The Causes of the Civil War
The New Deal
The Question of Pearl Harbor
Origins of the Cold War
The Vietnam Commitment


Хостинг предоставлен Факультетом международных отношений СПбГУ

© И.А. Цветков
2003 - 2010